A Visual Guide To Beer Gravity : Original and Final Gravities By Style

This chart of beer gravities, which forms part of my ongoing exploration of the BJCP style guide, will be useful if you need a quick point of reference before brewing.

But first, what exactly is beer gravity?

beer gravity

When brewers talk of the gravity of beer they refer to the amount of sugar suspended in it. Because this is a value that changes as the fermentation progresses gravity is usually measured several times during the brew process.

Although quite different beers can share the same vital statistics, gravity is nevertheless one of the ways brewing organisations categorise beers.

The BJCP has published a detailed style guide that offers target values for gravity, as well as bitterness and colour, for all of the listed beers.

Gravity is the beer characteristic that is most easily measured by home brewers. Floating hydrometers give you a gravity reading of any liquid.

The higher the gravity, the further out of the water they sit due to the increased density of the substance.

Types of Beer Gravity

Gravity is another way of describing the density of a liquid.

Brewers extract malt sugars to make wort, thus increasing the density of the water used. The ratio between the wort density and that of the original water is the gravity.

In general terms this is called specific gravity, but in brewing there are several sub-definitions that you should be aware of.

Pre-boil Gravity

Immediately after mashing the wort is heavily laden with malt sugars that the yeast ferment to make beer.

Although not part of the BJCP style statistics, it’s a good idea to take a gravity reading now, before starting the boil, to see how much sugar you extracted from the mash.

This gives you an idea of your mash efficiency and lets you know if it’s worth honing your brewing process.

Original Gravity

When you boil the wort, water is lost to evaporation and the proportion of sugar in the liquid rises.

At the end of the boil, and after cooling, take a gravity reading to find the original gravity which should be higher than the pre-boil gravity.

Original Gravity (OG) describes the amount of sugar in wort (after boiling but) before fermentation.

Final Gravity

Yeast convert wort sugars into alcohol, gas and many other by-products that contribute to, or detract from, the final beer flavour.

As they consume this sugar the density of the beer decreases, as you would expect. The density of the liquid when fermentation is complete is the final gravity.

Final Gravity (FG) is the amount of sugar in beer after fermentation.

Beer Gravity Chart

Now that you know what gravity is you can use this knowledge in your brewing.

Gravity in beer is controlled by the quantity of malt and other fermentables in your wort. Therefore, if you have an idea of the target gravities you can begin to develop a strategy for the beer.

Many brewers use the BJCP gravities as a starting point for their recipes.

Using information from the BJCP guidance, I’ve put together this chart of original and final gravities for every beer style:

Beer gravity chart showing original and final gravities by style

A pdf of the chart can be found here: beer gravity chart according to the BJCP Style Guide.

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For each beer in the chart, the first band of colour to the left is the final gravity, while to the right you’ll find the original gravity range.

The colours are based on an average SRM colour value for that beer style.

Beers with a final gravity towards the left of the chart will be drier on the palette; the further to the right the sweeter and fuller of body.

In terms of original gravity, the further to the right the bar, the more malt and other sugars you’ll need to start with.

You can see in the chart that the range of the target gravities is pretty large for most beer styles. This goes to show that there are many possibilities within brewing and that you shouldn’t rely too heavily on strict stylistic definitions.

Use the original gravity values as a basis for planning the malt and sugar profiles of your beer recipes, taking into account the efficiency of your system. Bear in mind that the final gravity will depend on many things, not just the amount of sugar in the wort, as explained below.

What Gravity Isn’t

Although there’s a general correlation between high gravities and strong beer, it’s not always the case. It’s the difference between the original and final gravities that’s important.

If more sugar is used by the yeast, more alcohol is produced.

Not All Sugars Are Fermented By Yeast

A variety of things affect fermentability, including type of yeast and sugar profile of the wort.

Yeast don’t consume all sugars equally; it depends on their fermentability. Some are almost 100% percent fermentable, for example cane sugar, while other sugars, such as honey, contain elements that won’t be fermented. Instead they’ll leave the beer with residual sweetness and body.

If you want a thicker beer without sweetness you can use adjuncts such as oats to add body.

Conversely, if you want a strong beer that’s still light enough to drink, use sugar as part of the grain bill. This will ferment away completely, lightening the beer at the same time.

Belgian brewers use this technique to produce strong, morish ales.

Sugar Profiles

The sugars drawn from malt vary in fermentability according to the type of grain and the temperatures used to mash.

As I found out recently when testing mash schedules, it’s possible to produce two worts made of exactly the same ingredients that have different original and final gravities, and which make a (subtly) different beer.

I recommend you conduct your own experiments because the many variables really become much clearer after you’ve seen the effects in a finished pint.

A gravity chart is a great place to start when planning a beer, but the recipe itself should develop far beyond these numerical values.

Remember that the style guide is just that, a guide.

By all means use it for reference when designing beer recipes but don’t be afraid to deviate and be inventive.

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  1. roger

    What does it mean…. Been making brew in a crock for years. hopped amber malt. when time to bottle, the SG is usually around 12. I have to separate batches going made Identicle and started at the same time. Batch one is still working to strong to bottle yet. this is day 14 and the SG has remained at 14 for Four days now. this has never happened????? Batch two was started at the same time. SG has remained at 22 for the last two days, working to hard to bottle yet. is this normal, can you give me some insite. thank you.

    • John

      Hi Roger,

      Can you provide a bit more information? If you’ve done everything the same way as usual, it’s hard to see why it hasn’t worked. Is there an issue with the yeast, or the fermentation temperature?



  2. roger

    I bottled today on day 16. SG was 16. Alc.8.3% before bottled. After day 4 the wart went away and would just be a little silk around crock. There was also a oily film the last 12 days. Watching with a hawks eye, I had to bottle today. No bad taste, or foul Oder. no exploding bottles so I did something right. lol Thank you for responding an looking forward to hear from you again. brew temp was between 68 an 70 degrees F brewing was just out of the norms this time.

    • John

      It sounds as though it went OK, even if not as planned.

      I hope it turns out to be tasty.

  3. John

    I’m brewing a Russian Imperial Stout. The first fermentation began two weeks ago and the specific gravity decreased when I checked it last week, but wasn’t low enough. I checked it again today and the specific gravity increased. What would cause this to happen?

    • John


      It’s very strange that the gravity should increase.

      Was the temperature different? That could be the reason, as explained here.

      Otherwise it could be that you made an error in your initial measurement, or for some reason your beer was not evenly mixed (this seems unlikely).

      It’s most improbable that the gravity would increase without you adding more sugar or without another external variable.

      Sorry I’m not more help, but it is a strange problem!

      • John

        Thanks. I took another sample and it was the same level as last week (1.030), but not at the expected FG level (1.02). Should I add yeast?

        • John

          You could try that but it may well be that fermentation is over.

          You may have more non-fermentable sugars than you expected, perhaps due to mashing at a higher temperature.

          But you could always try adding more yeast or mixing up the ones already there to see if that does anything.

          Or the beer may taste nice anyway.

          Good luck.

  4. Hawkeye

    Brewed an IPA to kit recipe, not bad for first brew of 2 gallons in my Coopers 8lx fermented. It passed my buddy’s taste test too.

    Another buddy played 3 cans of Coopers on me but they were for 6 gallon brews not 2. To use them up I am now brewing them in thirds. I made an error in water volume and added more than required. After adding 1 1/2 cups of dextrose to hypothetically get the abv to 5% I got an OG of 1.034 with a target FG of 1.08 which I figure will give me just above 3%. Was it the additional water?

    To use up the remaking 2/3 of the first can I intend to go to 12 liters of water and 2 1/2 cups of dextrose. Would I get close to my 5% abv?

    • John


      I don’t think I completely follow the numbers, but it sounds like you added too much water.

      If that’s the case, you’re on the right track using less water and more dextrose for the next batch.

  5. Hawkeye

    John, I will be making my third batch in about 10 days. The other 2/3 of the pilsner home will be used in a 12 liter wort solution with the other 2/3 of the s-23 yeast pitched. I am hoping for a 5% abv outcome. What do you suggest for cups of dextrose to use to get the results I want?

  6. Hawkeye

    John, I will be making my third batch in about 10 days. The other 2/3 of the pilsner hme will be used in a 12 liter wort solution with the other 2/3 of the packet of the s-23 yeast pitched. I am hoping for a 5% abv outcome. What do you suggest for cups of dextrose to use to get the results I want?

  7. Dan H.

    Ok I have a question I recently did an IPA. My OG was 1.060 and my FG was 1.108? I had good fermentation that lasted 3 weeks and maintained good temp during fermentation I had my beer in the carboy for 4 weeks before I was going to bottle. How does that happen?

    • John


      I haven’t come across that before. Are you sure the gravity readings are right?

  8. xavier J


    I’m a complete beginner in brewing. I would like to know how to make a beer with 6.5- 9 alcohol percentage.

    What do I need, and what is the main ingredient or process for the abv to go up?

    • John

      Xavier J,

      This page explains the brewing process and this recipe should make a beer that’s just over 7%. It depends on what sort of beer you like whether that’s a good one to start with.

      The main thing that affects the strength is the amount of fermentable sugar in the wort, which is the liquid that yeast turn into beer.

      Hope that helps.